Animals as Agents to Inform the Intersection of Micro and Macro Practice


  • Maureen MacNamara Appalachian State University


animal-assisted interventions, Human animal relationships, human-animal relationships, animals and human health, macro practice, animal assisted therapy, animal-assisted social work, human animal bond, pet therapy


Social work is my second career, but my childhood and first career experiences contributed to my realization of the ways in which the larger mezzo and macro systems can create barriers for individuals, making it difficult or even impossible for people to reach their full potential. This article explores how the existence of animals in human cultural, social, and emotional environments requires that all social workers develop a foundational understanding of the relevance of human-animal relationships to individual, family, and community well-being.

Author Biography

Maureen MacNamara, Appalachian State University

Assistant Professor

Department of Social Work




How to Cite

MacNamara, M. (2018). Animals as Agents to Inform the Intersection of Micro and Macro Practice. Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping, 24(1), 87–96. Retrieved from